Packages are officially supported images with pre-compiled languages (ie nodejs and php) or applications (ie Redis and Nginx). This makes it easier and more convenient to execute code without needing to compile your own interpreter(s).

You can also create and upload your own public and private packages at as well.

Listing Packages

To get a list of currently supported packages, run the following command:

$ ops pkg list

The package list can also be searched by simply providing a regular expression to the list command's --search option (-s for short).

$ ops pkg list --search ^[lr]

| ruby_2.3.1  | 2.3.1   | ruby     | ruby        |
| lua_5.2.4   | 5.2.4   | lua      | lua         |

Note: This command will probably go away in the future in favor of search.

Getting package locally

Package can be downloaded to the local cache ~/.ops/packages using ops get command.

$ ops pkg get <package_name>

Not sure what the latest package version would be? You can just grab the latest by substituting the version with the ':latest' tag:

 ops pkg load eyberg/redis:latest -p 6379

Information of Package

Package description provides common assumptions and settings required for running your application with help of package. You can get package description using ops pkg describe <package_name> command.

$ ops pkg describe nginx_1.15.6
Information for nginx_1.15.6 package:
Sample Readme for Nginx Application

Contents of Package

If you want see contents of a package, you can use ops pkg contents <package_name> command.

$ ops pkg contents perl_5.22.1
File :/package.manifest
File :/perl
Dir :/sysroot
Dir :/sysroot/lib
Dir :/sysroot/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu
File :/sysroot/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/
File :/sysroot/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/
File :/sysroot/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/
File :/sysroot/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/
File :/sysroot/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/
File :/sysroot/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/
Dir :/sysroot/lib64
File :/sysroot/lib64/

Removing local packages

By default, downloaded packages are stored in ~/.ops/bin/.packages. If you'd like to remove a package from your hard drive, whether its to conserve space, or to force a re-download of the package, you can do it here utilizing the rm cli tool.

Creating a Custom or Local Dev packages

If you want to create a packaeg manually you can follow these instructions:

then copy over an un-tarred dir to ~/.ops/local_packages

Finally you can run it via the local flag:

ops pkg load --local mypkg -a b.php -v

You can use the --missing-files flag on 'ops run' to hunt down any missing shared libraries that might not be getting loaded from the ldd output. For example with ruby:

$ ops run --missing-files /usr/local/bin/ruby
booting /home/eyberg/.ops/images/ruby.img ...
en1: assigned
`RubyGems' were not loaded.
`did_you_mean' was not loaded.

You can also turn on '--trace' to find the locations it might be in. A common idiom would to be run:

$ ops run --trace /usr/local/bin/ruby &>/tmp/missing

then grep through the output to find loads that failed.

If you wish to create your own local package you can use this as a template with your program being 'test':

➜  test_0.0.1 tree
├── package.manifest
├── sysroot
└── test

1 directory, 2 files

At a minimum your package.manifest should have the following fields:

   "Args" : ["test"],

It is important to note that the Program path should be valid. If you wish you may also add Language, Runtime, Description into the manifest so they show up in the search.

These have been traditionally populated from ~/.ops/packages/manifest.json . You may also wish to include a inside the package.

Then we can directly add the package in question as we develop on it:

ops pkg add test_0.0.1 --name test_0.0.1

We can finally load the package:

ops pkg load -l test_0.0.1

Create a Cloud Image from Local Package

Creating a cloud image from your local package is just like creating it from a regular package but you pass the '-l' flag in:

ops image create -c test.json -l --package c2_0.0.1 -t gcp -i mytest2

Create a New Package from an existing Package

You can use an existing package as a base to create a new package. For instance if you are deploying a node application you might have something that looks like this:

ops pkg load eyberg/node:v18.9.0 -c config.json -p 8080
  "Files": ["hi.js"],
  "Args": ["hi.js"]

You can create a new package from this config like so:

ops pkg from-pkg eyberg/node:v18.9.0 -c config.json -n mypkg -v 0.0.1

and use it:

ops pkg load -l mypkg_0.0.1

Then you can upload it to

ops pkg push mypkg_0.0.1

Create a Package from Docker

You can create a local package from an existing docker container. If the container does not exist it will download it first and then convert it into a unikernel. Currently this just grabs the binary and libraries necessary to run it versus the entire filesystem that might be present.

$ ops pkg from-docker node:16.3.0 --file node

$ ops pkg load -l node-16.3.0 -a a.js
booting /Users/qtmsheep/.ops/images/program ...
en1: assigned
exit status 1

If you would like to create a package from a local image try this workflow:

Sample Dockerfile:

FROM debian
CMD ["/bin/ls"]

Note: Right now the build process is dependent upon a non-scratch environment, for instance using ldd and cut.

docker build -t bob .
ops pkg from-docker bob -n bob --file ls
ops pkg load --local bob

Create a Package from 'ops run' style

You can create a local package in the same style you use ops run

$ ops run myprogram

by using ops pkg from-run

$ ops pkg from-run --name mypackage --version v0.1 myprogram
creating new pkg

$ ops pkg list --local
|           | mypackage   | v0.1    |          |         |                                |

$ ops pkg load --local mypackage_v0.1

Login to the OPS Repo

To upload private and public packages or use your private packages:

You'll need to initially create an account at . For now it just relies on github auth:

ops pkg login <api_key>

Upload a Package

If you have an account from the above step you can login with your apikey:

ops pkg login <api-key>

Then, for example, you could create a new node package from docker and then push it up:

ops pkg from-docker node:16.3.0 --file node
ops pkg push node-16.3.0

You can search for a pakage on like so:

ops pkg search gatsby

Then intention is that this will eventually deprecate 'ops pkg list'.


When working with scripting languages you might run into issues where they load libraries at run-time that you aren't aware you need. There are two ways to identify these:

You can turn on --trace with ops to look for it loading libraries:

ops run myprogram --trace &>/tmp/out
grep -B 1 "direct return: -" /tmp/out

You can use strace and run it normally and look for explicit dlopen calls:

strace myprogram 2>&1 | grep -E '^open(at)?\(.*\.so' > /tmp/dlopen

Once you find the missing library you can create the proper directory in your package and copy it in or put it into a local directory structure if just using 'ops run'.

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